Risk factors Age
• Normal ageing process causes increases progression
• 27% of those aged 63-70 had radiographic evidence of knee OA, increasing to 44% in over 80 age group Trauma
• Collateral ligament, meniscal tears and joint fractures lead to increased risk for OA
• Men with a history of known injury were at 5-6 fold increased risk of developing OA Occupation
• More common in those performing heavy physical work
• Dockers, miners and farmers found to have OA Exercise
• High impact sports present an increase for OA Gender and ethnicity
• Men under the age of 50 have a higher prevalence and incidence
• Women over 50 have a higher prevalence and incidence (menopause may be a trigger. However there is conflicting evidence if hormone replacement therapy protects against OA)
• Difference is less marked after the age of 80
• Generally more common in Europeans than in Asians Genetics
• There is genetic susceptibility to the disease • Children of parents with early onset OA are at a higher risk of developing OA themselves Obesity
• Strongest modifiable risk factor • Being overweight at an average age of 36-37 is a risk factor for developing knee OA Diet
• Threefold increase risk of progression of OA for people in the lower decile of vitamin C and D blood levels Bone density
• Increasing bone density may lead to increased loading through weight bearing joint cartilage
In 2006 there were nearly 34 million physician office visits in The United States for boldily injury, which includes sprains of strain, fractures, contusions, dislocations, crushes or burns. Sprains and strains were the most common type of injury, with nearly 17 million office visits. Sprains and strains are common injuries that share similar signs and symptoms, but involve different parts of your body.
A sprain is a stretch and/or tear of a ligament, the fibrous band of connective tissue that joins the end of one bone with another. Ligaments stabilize and support the body’s joints. For example, ligaments in the knee connect the upper leg with the lower leg, enabling people to walk and run. While the intensity varies, pain, bruising, swelling, and inflammation are common to all three categories of sprains: mild, moderate, severe. The individual will usually feel a tear or pop in the joint. A severe sprain produces excruciating pain at the moment of injury, as ligaments tear completely, or separate from the bone. This loosening makes the joint nonfunctional. A moderate sprain partially tears the ligament, producing joint instability, and some swelling. A ligament is stretched in a mild sprain, but there is no joint loosening
Chronic strains are the result of overuse (prolonged, repetitive movement) of muscles and tendons. Inadequate rest breaks during intensive training precipitates a strain. Acute strains are caused by a direct blow to the body, overstretching, or excessive muscle contraction.
Typical indications include pain, muscle spasm, muscle weakness, swelling, inflammation, and cramping. In severe strains, the muscle and/or tendon is partially or completely ruptured, often incapacitating the individual. Some muscle function will be lost with a moderate strain, where the muscle/tendon is overstretched and slightly torn. With a mild strain, the muscle/tendon is stretched or pulled, slightly.
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